Solar Panel Manufacturing Business

The solar panel manufacturing industry is experiencing rapid growth in India, expanding by nearly 50% over the past decade. Solar energy, being renewable unlike fossil fuels, is not only environmentally friendly but also cost-effective. Consequently, the government has introduced various policies and incentives, such as the PLI scheme, to support the development of this sector. Globally, the solar energy market was valued at USD 59 billion in 2020 and is projected to reach USD 230 billion by 2028. Many manufacturing businesses are opting for solar rooftops due to environmental regulations, creating a substantial market for solar panel manufacturers. Setting up a solar panel manufacturing plant involves various components like solar panels, DC distribution boxes, batteries, panel stands, wires, and tracking structures.

Here's a step-by-step overview of the solar panel manufacturing process:

1. Polysilicon is derived from quartz using a carbon arc in an electric arc furnace.
2. Boron is added to the obtained polysilicon at high temperatures to create p-type semiconductor material.
3. Molten polysilicon is cast into blocks to form ingots or silicon blocks.
4. Ingots are sliced into wafers using wire saws.
5. Wafers undergo solar etching to produce hexagonal or rectangular shapes, suitable for assembling into solar cells.
6. Wafers are cleaned and treated to form an N-type semiconductor layer in a phosphorous diffusion furnace.
7. An anti-reflective coating is applied to the top surface of the cells to minimize sunlight loss.
8. Electrical contacts are utilized to interconnect solar cells.
9. A conductive material is deposited on the back surface of each cell to displace the diffused phosphorous layer.
10. Each solar cell undergoes testing and is arranged within a framework to construct a solar panel. Typically, a panel containing 48 solar cells is suitable for small residential roofs, while 60-cell panels are considered the standard size.